Algemene informatie

Over Suriname

Suriname ligt op het Zuid‐Amerikaanse continent, ten noorden van Brazilië tussen Guyana en Frans Guyana. Suriname is een dunbevolkt land. De totale bevolking omvat nog geen 600.000 mensen, de meeste mensen wonen in de hoofdstad Paramaribo en langs de kust. Het land heeft een kleine maar diverse bevolking. (land opp.: 163,820 km2 pop: 492.829; ABS 2009) De belangrijkste bevolkingsgroepen zijn Hindoestanen (29%), Creolen (24.1%), Javanen (14.6%), Marrons (14.7%), Inheemsen (3.6%), Brazilianen, Chinezen, en verschillende andere etnische groepen. De Surinaamse bevolking leeft grotendeels in de 30 km brede Atlantische kuststrook; voornamelijk in en rond de hoofdstad Paramaribo. Het zuidelijke 80 procent van het land is bedekt met tropisch regenwoud, en wordt aangeduid als het “binnenland”, een enorm dunbevolkt bosgebied waar marrons en inheemsen wonen. Suriname telt 10 districten

Electriciteit

Electricity - production:

1.75 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - consumption:

1.572 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

412,000 kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

54.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

45.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Crude oil - production:

15,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Crude oil - proved reserves:

88.97 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Refined petroleum products - production:

15,980 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

17,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Refined petroleum products - exports:

8,884 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Refined petroleum products - imports:

10,070 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

2.268 million Mt (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

 

Geografie

Location:

Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates:

4 00 N, 56 00 W

Map references:

South America

Area:

total: 163,820 sq km

land: 156,000 sq km

water: 7,820 sq km

country comparison to the world: 92

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,907 km

border countries (3): Brazil 515 km, French Guiana 556 km, Guyana 836 km

Coastline:

386 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:

tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain:

mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation:

mean elevation: 246 m

elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m

highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m

Natural resources:

timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore

Land use:

agricultural land: 0.5%

arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%

forest: 94.6%

other: 4.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

570 sq km (2012)

Population - distribution:

population concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated

Total renewable water resources:

122 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.67 cu km/yr (6%/4%/90%)

per capita: 1,396 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards:

NA

Environment - current issues:

deforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast

 

Overheid

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Suriname

conventional short form: Suriname

local long form: Republiek Suriname

local short form: Suriname

former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

etymology: name may derive from the indigenous "Surinen" people who inhabited the area at the time of European contact

Government type:

presidential republic

Capital:

name: Paramaribo

geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence:

25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution:

previous 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987; amended 1992 (2016)

Legal system:

civil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - the Commissie Nieuw Surinaamse Burgerlijk Wetboek completed drafting a new civil code in February 2009

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held on 25 May 2020)

election results: Desire Delano BOUTERSE reelected president; National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NDP 45.5%, V7 37.2%, A-Com 10.5%, DOE 4.3%, PALU .7%, other 1.7%; seats by party - NDP 26, V7 18, A-Com 5, DOE 1, PALU 1

Judicial branch:

highest resident court(s): High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges); note - Suriname can appeal beyond its High Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the High Court; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders:

Alternative Combination or A-Com (a coalition that includes ABOP, KTPI, PDO)

Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Celsius WATERBERG]

Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Winston JESSURUN]

General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK}

National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE]

National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND]

Party for Democracy and Development or PDO [Waldy NAIN]

Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]

Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]

People's Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO]

Progressive Worker and Farmer's Union or PALU [Jim HOK]

Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN]

United Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI]

Victory 7 or V7 (formerly the New Front for Democracy and Development or NF) (a coalition including NPS, VHP, DA91, PL, SPA) [Chandrikapresad SANTOKHI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]

Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]

Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]

International organization participation:

ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sylvana Elvira SIMSON (since 1 September 2015)

chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878

consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jay N. ANANIA (since 1 October 2012)

embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo

mailing address: US Department of State, PO Box 1821, Paramaribo

telephone: [597] 472-900

FAX: [597] 410-972

Flag description:

five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); a large, yellow, five-pointed star is centered in the red band; red stands for progress and love; green symbolizes hope and fertility; white signifies peace, justice, and freedom; the star represents the unity of all ethnic groups; from its yellow light the nation draws strength to bear sacrifices patiently while working toward a golden future

National symbol(s):

royal palm, faya lobi (flower); national colors: green, white, red, yellow

National anthem:

name: "God zij met ons Suriname!" (God Be With Our Suriname)

lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY

note: adopted 1959; originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893 and contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo

 

Communicatie

Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 85,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total: 991,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 171 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 159

Telephone system:

general assessment: international facilities are good

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 185 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network

international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:

2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 4, FM 23, shortwave 3 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:

3 (plus 7 repeaters) (2000)

Internet country code:

.sr

Internet hosts:

188 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 201

Internet users:

total: 248,000

percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

 

Economie

The economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of oil, gold, and alumina accounting for about 85% of exports and 27% of government revenues, making the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility.

Economic growth has declined annually from just under 5% in 2012 to 1.5% in 2015. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. As a result of these measures, inflation receded to less than 4% in 2015.

Suriname's economic prospects for the medium term will depend on continued commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and to the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The government's reliance on revenue from extractive industries will temper Suriname's economic outlook, especially if gold prices continue their downward trend.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$9.09 billion (2015 est.)

$9.077 billion (2014 est.)

$8.913 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 161

GDP (official exchange rate):

$5.192 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

0.1% (2015 est.)

1.8% (2014 est.)

2.8% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 193

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$16,300 (2015 est.)

$16,200 (2014 est.)

$16,200 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 100

Gross national saving:

24.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

24.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

25.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 52%

government consumption: 11.2%

investment in fixed capital: 11.9%

investment in inventories: 26.5%

exports of goods and services: 24.2%

imports of goods and services: -25.8% (2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 6.2%

industry: 48.7%

services: 45.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products:

rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; shrimp; forest products

Industries:

bauxite and gold mining, alumina production; oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:

2% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Labor force:

165,600 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 11.2%

industry: 19.5%

services: 69.3% (2010)

Unemployment rate:

8.9% (2014 est.)

8.5% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Population below poverty line:

70% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget:

revenues: $1.061 billion

expenditures: $1.455 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

21% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-7.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

6.9% (2015 est.)

3.4% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 193

Central bank discount rate:

10% (2013)

9% (2012)

country comparison to the world: 23

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

12.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

12.28% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Stock of narrow money:

$1.55 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.409 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Stock of broad money:

$3.461 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.885 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.424 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.029 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA

Current account balance:

-$808 million (2015 est.)

-$415 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Exports:

$1.829 billion (2015 est.)

$2.149 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Exports - commodities:

alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas

Exports - partners:

Switzerland 21.8%, UAE 14.5%, India 13.9%, Belgium 9.7%, US 8.9%, France 8.1%, Canada 6.6% (2015)

Imports:

$2.06 billion (2015 est.)

$1.966 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Imports - commodities:

capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods

Imports - partners:

US 26.8%, Netherlands 14.3%, China 12.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.4%, Japan 4.8% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$625.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)

$778.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Debt - external:

$1.067 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$983 million (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Exchange rates:

Surinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar -

3.3 (2015 est.)

3.3 (2014 est.)

3.3 (2013 est.)

3.3 (2012 est.)

3.2683 (2011 est.)

 

Mens en samenleving

Nationaliteit

noun: Surinamer(s)

adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups:

Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%, "Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%

Languages:

Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

Religions:

Hindu 27.4%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), Roman Catholic 22.8%, Muslim 19.6%, indigenous beliefs 5%

Demographic profile:

Suriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles (persons of mixed African and European heritage), the descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese contract workers. The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.

Some 350,000 people of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands. World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mid-1980s, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.

Population:

579,633 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Age structure:

0-14 years: 25.66% (male 75,791/female 72,934)

15-24 years: 17.48% (male 51,657/female 49,662)

25-54 years: 44.3% (male 130,726/female 126,048)

55-64 years: 6.81% (male 19,291/female 20,198)

65 years and over: 5.75% (male 14,395/female 18,931) (2015 est.)

population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 50.8%

youth dependency ratio: 40.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 10.4%

potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)

Median age:

total: 29.5 years

male: 29.1 years

female: 29.9 years (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Population growth rate:

1.08% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Birth rate:

16.34 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Death rate:

6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Net migration rate:

0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Population distribution:

population concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated

Urbanization:

urban population: 66% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

PARAMARIBO (capital) 234,000 (2014)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

155 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Infant mortality rate:

total: 26.17 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 30.48 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 71.97 years

male: 69.57 years

female: 74.48 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Total fertility rate:

1.97 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

47.6% (2010)

Health expenditures:

5.7% of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 115

Hospital bed density:

3.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 98.1% of population

rural: 88.4% of population

total: 94.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.9% of population

rural: 11.6% of population

total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 88.4% of population

rural: 61.4% of population

total: 79.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 11.6% of population

rural: 38.6% of population

total: 20.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.02% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

3,800 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

200 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

26.1% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 60

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

5.8% (2010)

country comparison to the world: 83

Education expenditures:

NA

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.6%

male: 96.1%

female: 95% (2015 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 6,094

percentage: 6% (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 15.3%

male: 11.6%

female: 21.7% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51